Events for 2013

2013 Christmas Bird Count

From Sat Dec 14 2013, 06 AM to Sat Dec 14 2013, 04 PM

Tags: Volunteer Opportunity NPS Event Golden Triangle Audubon Event Field Trip

Location: Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor's Center

Contact: John A. Whittle

Description: Golden Triangle Audubon and Big Thicket National Preserve: Turkey Creek Christmas Bird Count, Saturday December 14, 2013

Attendees: Open to the public; Volunteer opportunity

Woodpecker

This year's Turkey Creek Count will be held on Saturday December 14.  We will assemble at the Big Thicket Visitor Center on Highway 69 about 7 miles north of Kountze at 6:30 AM.  We are grateful to the Preserve for opening the Visitor Center at 6:30 especially for us. We will organize and divide into groups and then begin birding at about 7:00 AM.  We will plan on meeting back at the Visitor Center to compile results at around 4:30 PM.
 
On behalf of the Big Thicket National Preserve and Audubon, we would like to invite you to participate in this count. The count circle is quite interesting and mostly readily accessible. The count has a long history going back to 1978, and provides the only long-running record of winter bird populations in the southern part of the Big Thicket.  Although final assignments are not made until the morning of the count, it would be very helpful for planning if you could let me know that you plan to participate.
 
You can find more details of these counts on the Golden Triangle Audubon Web Site at www.goldentriangleaudubon.org

Big Thicket Mushroom Walk-11/16/2013

From Sat Nov 16 2013, 10 AM to Sat Nov 16 2013, 03 PM

Tags: ATBI Volunteer Opportunity

Location: Field Research Station, 16890 FM 770, Saratoga, TX 77585

Contact: David & Patricia Lewis

Description: We will foray into the Lance Rosier Unit of the BTNP, collect and record species.

Attendees: Open to the public; Volunteers

Big Thicket Mushroom Walk

Macro Fungi-2009-FRS

We will meet at 10 AM at the Big Thicket National Preserve (BTNP) Field Research Station (FRS), located in Saratoga TX, on the west side of the highway. Saratoga is approx. 35 miles NW of Beaumont. The FRS is on FM 770, north off TX Hwy 105 between Beaumont and Cleveland.

We will foray into the Lance Rosier Unit of the BTNP, collect and record species, and thereby assist with the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) species list for the BTNP.

After collecting, we will return to the FRS, have lunch, and discuss the morning’s finds.  Bring collecting gear, rain wear, water, bug spray, and a sack lunch.

DAVIS HILL STATE PARK PROJECT: YAUPON REMOVAL

From Sat Oct 26 2013, 08 AM to Sat Oct 26 2013, 05 PM

Tags: Volunteer Opportunity TPWD Event BTA Event Sierra Club Event

Location: Davis Hill State Park

Contact: Evelyn Merz

Description: The Lone Star Chapter made a special push during the last legislative session to try and open state parks that have never opened to the public. Davis Hill is one of those state parks. TPWD is now looking at how Davis Hill could be opened on a limited basis. Sierra Club has reached out to TPWD to set up service days to remove invasive species from the park. The first service day on Sept. 28th is devoted to killing tallow trees. The second (and last) service day in 2013 will be Sat., Oct. 26th when we’ll remove yaupon that is crowding out the wonderful pocket prairie communities on the hill.

Attendees: Open to the public

Davis Hill

Davis Hill State Park Service Outing to Rid the Park of Yaupon Trees

Saturday, October 28, 2013 8:00 AM

See beautiful Davis Hill State Park while you volunteer for this service project to control invasive plants and help preserve plant diversity.  Davis Hill is a unique park that actually has some elevation because it’s on top of a salt dome close to the Trinity River.  The park has never opened to the public, but the goal is to develop a plan for public access.  We’ll work with Texas Parks & Wildlife Dept. staff, who will guide our work party.

Volunteers should gather at 8 AM in Cleveland in the Subway parking lot located at 140 Truly Plaza in Cleveland, TX.  The distance from downtown Houston is about 50 miles.  SEE BELOW FOR DIRECTIONS & MAP

Deep East Texans can meet at the  Hwy 105 and FM 2518 intersection @ 8:30 AM

We’ll caravan to Davis Hill SP and arrive about 8:30 AM.  It is an easy hike to the work site.  

After a lunch break from noon to 1 PM, we’ll rid the park of more tallows until 2:30 PM and then start back to the vehicles. 

Bring a sack lunch and a couple of filled water bottles.  Wear long pants, a hat and either hiking boots or old shoes.  We will not be on established trails.  Although TPWD will bring along loppers and hatchets, please bring along these tools if you have them.  It’s a good idea to mark your tools to reduce confusion.

Contact Evelyn Merz at 713-644-8228 or elmerz@hal-pc.org for more information.  You can also sign up at the Houston Sierra Club Outings Meet-up group. 

To get to Subway at 140 Truly Plaza, Cleveland, TX: Go east on Hwy 105 (W. Southline St.) from Hwy 59. Continue to the intersection with S. Washington Ave (Hwy 573) and turn right (south). You will see the Subway in a shopping center on your right.

BTA Day Oct. 12, 2013

From Sat Oct 12 2013, 10 AM to Sat Oct 12 2013, 03 PM

Tags: BTA Event

Location: Field Research Station, 16890 FM 770, Saratoga, TX 77585

Contact: Bruce Walker

Description: Big Thicket Day annual celebration

Attendees: Open to public

Presentation: Mapping Big Thicket 9/30/2013

From Mon Sep 30 2013, 07 PM to Mon Sep 30 2013, 08 PM

Location: Jesse H Jones Park & Nature Center 20634 Kenswick Dr, Humble, Texas 77338-2003

Description: Second presentation of "Mapping Big Thicket" by Alex Dye; location Humble, TX

Attendees: Open to the public

Alex Dye, intern with the Thicket of Diversity ATBI (All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory) project, will discuss and present current mapping techniques used to document data, resources and research in the Big Thicket National Preserve and region. 

Dye, from Indianapolis, Indiana, is a 2013 graduate of the University of Tennessee with a Masters in Geography. His intern position is funded by the Chicago Botanic Garden, National Park Service Park Partnership Grant, and Big Thicket Association. An Entergy Charitable Foundation grant to the Big Thicket Association provided the equipment to pursue this project. 

Open to the public.

Science Cafe: Mapping Big Thicket

From Thu Sep 19 2013, 06 PM to Thu Sep 19 2013, 07 PM

Tags: ATBI Education Science Cafe

Location: Logon Café, 3805 Calder Ave, Beaumont, TX

Contact: Mona A. Halvorsen

Description: What does it take to create maps of the Big Thicket? Join us at a Science Café to learn about the tools and techniques used to document the resources and research activities here. Meet at the Logon Café, 3805 Calder Ave, Beaumont. Approximately 1 hour.

Attendees: Free and open to the public

Vascular Plant Map

NPS Program: The Big Thicket by Moonlight-09/14/2013

From Sat Sep 14 2013, 07 PM to Sat Sep 14 2013, 09 PM

Tags: Hike NPS Event

Location: Kirby Trailhead on FM 420

Description: The Big Thicket can seem like a very different world in the dark. Engage your senses and learn about nocturnal wildlife on this 1.5-mile night hike. Meet at the Kirby Trailhead with water, good walking shoes, and a flashlight or headlamp with a red lens. The trailhead is located on FM 420, 2.5 miles east of the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center. No light-up shoes.

Attendees: Free and open to public

Moths-Michael Black-2010

Cardinal Cruise-Sept. 7, 2013

From Sat Sep 07 2013, 10 AM to Sat Sep 07 2013, 12 PM

Location: Riverfront Park in Beaumont

Description: Explore the Neches River and 10-mile bayou on a pontoon boat! Learn about the natural and cultural history of the area while watching for egrets, ospreys, alligators, and other wildlife on this 2-hour tour. Meet at Riverfront Park in Beaumont. Reservations required. Fees apply; call (409) 651-5326 or go to www.nechesriveradventures.org for more information and to make reservations.

Attendees: Open to public, Reservations required and fees apply

River Adventures Boat

NPS Program: A Walk in the Woods-08/31/2013

From Sat Aug 31 2013, 09 AM to Sat Aug 31 2013, 10 AM

Tags: Hike NPS Event

Location: Kirby Trailhead on FM 420

Description: 9 am. The Kirby Nature Trail connects a series of diverse ecosystems: forests, baygalls, cypress sloughs, and river floodplain. Join a ranger to explore and learn about the plants, animals, fungi, and ecology of this area. Meet at the Kirby Trailhead on FM 420. Bring water and insect repellent. 1.7 miles, 1.5 hours.

Attendees: Open to the public

KNT-Cypress Slough

NPS Program: Useful Plants of the Big Thicket-08/27/2013

From Tue Aug 27 2013, 10 AM to Tue Aug 27 2013, 11 AM

Tags: Education NPS Event

Location: Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor's Center

Description: 10 am. Early Big Thicket residents used native plants for food, medicine, and many other purposes. Join a ranger to learn more about these at this indoor program. Meet at the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center. 1 hour.

Attendees: Open to the public

Switch Cane

NPS Program: 97th Anniversary of the National Park Service

From Sat Aug 24 2013, 03 PM to Sat Aug 24 2013, 04 PM

Tags: Education NPS Event Social Event

Location: Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor's Center

Description: 97th Anniversary of the National Park Service. 3 pm. Celebrate this historic event at a fun, educational program at the Big Thicket National Preserve visitor center. Test your knowledge of the national parks and compete for prizes. Approximately 1 hour.

Attendees: Open to the public

NPS Program: Kids' Library Program-08/23/2013

From Fri Aug 23 2013, 10 AM to Fri Aug 23 2013, 11 AM

Tags: Education NPS Event

Location: RC Miller Library, 1605 Dowlen, Beaumont, TX

Description: Kids! Join a park ranger to read the book “Leaf Man” and create artwork using leaves. Meet at the RC Miller Library, 1605 Dowlen, Beaumont.

Attendees: Open to the public

Leaf purple paint

NPS Program: Useful Plants of the Big Thicket-08/22/2013

From Thu Aug 22 2013, 07 PM to Thu Aug 22 2013, 08 PM

Tags: Education NPS Event

Location: Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor's Center

Description: Early Big Thicket residents used native plants for food, medicine, and many other purposes. Join a ranger to learn more about these at this indoor program. Meet at the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center. 1 hour.

Attendees: Open to the public

Passionflower clip art

NPS Program: The Big Thicket by Moonlight-08/17/2013

From Sat Aug 17 2013, 08 PM to Sat Aug 17 2013, 09 PM

Tags: Hike NPS Event

Location: Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor's Center

Description: The Big Thicket can seem like a very different world after sunset. Engage your senses and learn about nocturnal wildlife on this 1-mile night hike. Meet at the Sundew Trailhead with water, good walking shoes, and a flashlight or headlamp with a red lens. The trailhead is located on CR 1910, 0.5 mile south of FM 2827, about 7 miles north of the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center. No light-up shoes.

Attendees: Open to the public

Sundew Trail

NPS Program: Useful Plants of the Big Thicket-08/13/2013

From Tue Aug 13 2013, 02 PM to Tue Aug 13 2013, 03 PM

Tags: Education NPS Event

Location: Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor's Center

Description: Early Big Thicket residents used native plants for food, medicine, and many other purposes. Join a ranger to learn more about these at this indoor program. Meet at the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center. 1 hour.

Attendees: Open to the public

Dandelion Clip Art

NPS Program: Skins and Skulls-08/10/2013

From Sat Aug 10 2013, 02 PM to Sat Aug 10 2013, 03 PM

Tags: Education NPS Event

Location: Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor's Center

Description: Have you ever felt an alligator’s teeth or a skunk’s fur? You can do these and more, safely, at our afternoon program featuring the skins and skulls of many Big Thicket animals. Meet at the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center. Approximately 1 hour.

Attendees: Open to the public

Alligator in water-clip art

NPS Program: Discovery Hike-08/10/2013

From Sat Aug 10 2013, 09 AM to Sat Aug 10 2013, 11 AM

Tags: Hike NPS Event

Location: Sundew Trailhead, CR 1910, 0.5 mile south of FM 2827, about 7 miles north of the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center.

Description: Saturday, August 10 “Discovery Hike”, 9:00 am. The fun of exploring the Big Thicket lies in discovery. Join a ranger to look for carnivorous plants, blooming wildflowers, animal signs, and more on this 1-mile hike. Meet at the Sundew Trailhead with water and good walking shoes. The trailhead is located on CR 1910, 0.5 mile south of FM 2827, about 7 miles north of the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center.

Attendees: Open to public

Sundew Closeup-Michael Black

Sundew closeup; Photo by Michael J. Black

Marysee Prairie Preserve Cleanup Day

From Sat Jun 01 2013, 08 AM to Sat Jun 01 2013, 04 PM

Tags: Volunteer Opportunity Texas Land Conservancy Work BTA Event

Location: Marysee Prairie Preserve--see map for directions

Contact: Maxine Johnston

Description: This is the only protected remnant of native prairie in the Big Thicket area. Volunteer efforts to maintain and restore the prairie are coordinated by members of the Big Thicket Association and Houston Sierra Club and supported by grants from Entergy Texas.

Attendees: Open to public

http://www.texaslandconservancy.org/marysee-othermenu-139.html

Marysee Prairie Map

30.256028,‐94.680090

County Road 2077, off Hwy 105 between Batson and Moss Hill

 

NPS Program: Armadillo Amble-5/31/2013

From Fri May 31 2013, 09 PM to Fri May 31 2013, 10 PM

Tags: Hike Education NPS Event

Location: Kirby Trailhead

Description: “Armadillo Amble”, 9 pm. Learn about nocturnal wildlife on this night hike. Look for scorpions and spiders and listen for bats, frogs, toads, and more on this 1.7-mile walk. Meet at the Kirby Trailhead with water, good walking shoes, and a flashlight or headlamp with a red lens. No light-up shoes.

Attendees: Free and open to public

Armadillo

NPS Program: Skins and Skulls-05/25/2013

From Sat May 25 2013, 02 PM to Sat May 25 2013, 03 PM

Tags: Education NPS Event

Description: “Skins and Skulls”, 2 pm. Have you ever felt an alligator’s teeth or a skunk’s fur? You can do these and more, safely, at our afternoon program featuring the skins and skulls of many Big Thicket animals. Meet at the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center. Approximately 1 hour.

Attendees: Free and open to public

NPS Program: Discovery Hike-05/25/2013

From Sat May 25 2013, 09 AM to Sat May 25 2013, 11 AM

Tags: Education NPS Event

Location: Sundew Trailhead, CR 1910, 0.5 mile south of FM 2827, about 7 miles north of the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center.

Description: “Discovery Hike”, 9:30 am. The fun of exploring the Big Thicket lies in discovery. Join a ranger to look for carnivorous plants, blooming wildflowers, animal signs, and more on this 1-mile hike. Meet at the Sundew Trailhead with water and good walking shoes. The trailhead is located on CR 1910, 0.5 mile south of FM 2827, about 7 miles north of the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center.

Attendees: Free and open to public

NPS Program: Kids’ Library Program

From Fri May 24 2013, 10 AM to Fri May 24 2013, 11 AM

Tags: Education NPS Event

Location: RC Miller Library, 1605 Dowlen, Beaumont

Description: Kids! Join a park ranger at this special library program to learn about the nocturnal animals of the Big Thicket. Meet at the RC Miller Library, 1605 Dowlen, Beaumont

Attendees: Free and open to public

TPWD Program: Davis Hill State Park Guided Tour

From Thu May 09 2013, 09 AM to Thu May 09 2013, 03 PM

Tags: Hike TPWD Event Field Trip

Location: Davis Hill State Park -- meet in Cleveland, Texas, at the Subway restaurant in the Truly Plaza truck stop on HWY 59, to caravan to the site

Contact: Justin Rhodes

Description: Texas Parks and Wildlife Dept. (TPWD) will host an open house in which agency staff will provide a guided tour of this property. TPWD will also use this as an opportunity to open a dialog to consider special use permits and the development of a public use plan.

Attendees: Free and Open to Public

Plan to meet in Cleveland, Texas, at the Subway restaurant in the Truly Plaza truck stop on HWY 59, to caravan to the site.

You will need to bring a sack lunch and will be responsible for your own water, bug spray, sunscreen and any other personal items you may need. Be certain to wear appropriate outdoor clothing as we will be exploring the site on non-designated trails. Be prepared to traverse long distances on uneven terrain and to be away from traditional amenities throughout the tour. For additional information and to RSVP, contact Justin Rhodes by e-mail, or at: (281) 456-8266, ext. 223.

Davis Hill State Park Topo Map

Printable Davis Hill State Park Topo Map

Sierra Club: Sunday in the Park Field Trip-May 5, 2013

From Sun May 05 2013, 01 PM to Sun May 05 2013, 03 PM

Tags: Sierra Club Event Field Trip

Location: Big Thicket National Preserve, Edgewater Day Use Area-Pine Island Bayou

Contact: Kathryn Walker

Description: Edgewater Day Use Area—Pine Island Bayou —A lovely trail to stroll along the bayou. To get to Edgewater Day Use area take the Tram Rd Exit from Hwy 69 North—Turn right onto Broad Oak and continue on to Edgewater Drive.

Attendees: Free and open to public

NPS Program: "Discovery Hike"

From Sat Apr 27 2013, 10 AM to Sat Apr 27 2013, 11 AM

Tags: Hike Education NPS Event

Location: Sundew Trailhead located on CR 1910, 0.5 mile south of FM 2827, about 7 miles north of the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center

Description: The fun of exploring the Big Thicket lies in discovery. Join a ranger to look for carnivorous plants, blooming wildflowers, animal signs, and more on this 1-mile hike. Meet at the Sundew Trailhead with water and good walking shoes. The trailhead is located on CR 1910, 0.5 mile south of FM 2827, about 7 miles north of the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center.

Attendees: Free and Open to public

Sundew Closeup-Michael Black

Sundew Plant-Carnivorous

Photo by Michael Black

Watson Preserve Tour led by Joe Liggio

From Sat Apr 27 2013, 10 AM to Sat Apr 27 2013, 12 PM

Tags: Tour Field Trip

Location: Watson Preserve

Contact: Pauline Singleton

Description: On Saturday, April 27, Joe Liggio will lead a tour of Watson Preserve. There should be many spring wildflowers, including orchids. While you may arrive earlier and look around if you so desire, the guided tour will begin at 10:00 am

Attendees: Free; Open to public

On Saturday, April 27, Joe Liggio will lead a tour of Watson Preserve. There should be many spring wildflowers, including orchids.  While you may arrive earlier and look around if you so desire, the guided tour will begin at 10:00 am.

The preserve is open to the public at no charge 365 days a year.  Guided tours may sometimes be arranged by calling Pauline Singleton at 281-421-2469 or emailing her at pollytx1@gmail.com.  

Driving directions: The preserve is off of US-69 in Warren, TX.  From US-69 turn east on County Road 4770, drive about half a mile to the bridge and then across the dam.  At the top of the hill turn left on CR-4777.  About a quarter mile on the left is the entrance to the preserve and a parking area.  There are no restroom facilities on the preserve.

 

Orchid-Hexalectris spicata

NPS Program: “The Big Thicket by Moonlight”

From Sat Apr 20 2013, 08 PM to Sat Apr 20 2013, 09 PM

Tags: Hike Education NPS Event

Location: Sundew Trailhead located on CR 1910, 0.5 mile south of FM 2827, about 7 miles north of the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center

Description: The Big Thicket can seem like a very different world at night. Engage your senses and learn about nocturnal wildlife on this 1-mile night hike. Meet at the Sundew Trailhead with water, good walking shoes, and a flashlight or headlamp with a red lens. The trailhead is located on CR 1910, 0.5 mile south of FM 2827, about 7 miles north of the Big Thicket National Preserve Visitor Center. No light-up shoes.

Attendees: Free and Open to public

Sundew Trail

Sundew Trail

NPS Program: Cardinal Cruise-April 13, 2013

From Sat Apr 13 2013, 10 AM to Sat Apr 13 2013, 12 PM

Tags: Education NPS Event Field Trip

Location: Riverfront Park in Beaumont, TX

Description: Explore the Neches River and 10-mile bayou on a pontoon boat! Learn about the natural and cultural history of the area while watching for egrets, ospreys, alligators, and other wildlife on this 2-hour tour. Meet at Riverfront Park in Beaumont. Reservations required. Fees apply; call (409) 651-5326 or go to www.nechesriveradventures.org for more information and to make reservations.

Attendees: Open to public, Fee

NPS Program: Cardinal Cruise-April 13, 2013

From Sat Apr 13 2013, 10 AM to Sat Apr 13 2013, 12 PM

Tags: Education NPS Event Field Trip

Location: Riverfront Park in Beaumont, TX

Description: Explore the Neches River and 10-mile bayou on a pontoon boat! Learn about the natural and cultural history of the area while watching for egrets, ospreys, alligators, and other wildlife on this 2-hour tour. Meet at Riverfront Park in Beaumont. Reservations required. Fees apply; call (409) 651-5326 or go to www.nechesriveradventures.org for more information and to make reservations.

Attendees: Open to public, Fee

Native Plant Restoration Day

From Sat Apr 13 2013, 08 AM to Sat Apr 13 2013, 02 PM

Tags: Volunteer Opportunity NPS Event

Location: Turkey Creek trailhead on Gore Store Road

Contact: Deanna Boensch

Description: Please join us for a Volunteer Day in the Big Thicket!

Attendees: Volunteers Needed! Open to public

Please join us for a Volunteer Day in the Big Thicket!

On Saturday April 13th from 8 am till 2 pm, we will be completing a Native Plant Restoration Project off the Turkey Creek Trail in Big Thicket National Preserve.

If you are interested in helping, please join us at the Turkey Creek trailhead on Gore Store Road.  We will be planting south of the road along the trail.

Please bring you own bug spray, water bottle, lunch, and appropriate clothing for the weather.

Turkey Creek-Native Plant Restoration Day

Directions from Beaumont/I10:

Take Hwy 69/287 N through Kountze.  Pass the Big Thicket Visitor's Center at HWY 420 and continue North crossing over Village Creek.  Approximately 2 miles north will be Gore Store Road.  Turn right and continue down until you see the sign for the Turkey Creek Trail on your right.  Parking is available off of the road.

Hope to see you there!


Deanna Boensch

Ecologist

Big Thicket National Preserve

6044 FM 420 

Kountze, TX  77625

409-951-6821

NPS Program: Kids’ Library Program

From Wed Apr 10 2013, 10 AM to Wed Apr 10 2013, 11 AM

Tags: Education NPS Event

Location: Elmo Willard Library, 3590 East Lucas St., Beaumont, TX

Description: Kids! Join a park ranger at this special library program to learn about the plants and animals of the Big Thicket. Meet at the Elmo Willard Library, 3590 East Lucas St., Beaumont.

Attendees: Free and open to public

NPS Program: Village Creek Clean-up

From Sat Apr 06 2013, 08 AM to Sat Apr 06 2013, 04 PM

Tags: Volunteer Opportunity NPS Event

Location: Village Creek Sate Park

Description: Join us in a 3-mile paddling trip to remove trash from Village Creek, from Hwy 96 to Village Creek State Park. Meet at the state park with your own canoe or kayak, water, and sunscreen. Free canoes and shuttle service will be provided to those who need them. From the park we will shuttle to the put-in at Hwy 96. Trash bags and gloves will be provided. Participants must sign up by March 30! To sign up or for more information, call (409) 951-6700.

Attendees: Free and open to public

vcsp-sandbar.jpg

NPS Program: “Pitcher Plants and Pines”

From Sat Mar 30 2013, 10 AM to Sat Mar 30 2013, 12 PM

Tags: Education NPS Event Field Trip

Location: Pitcher Plant Trailhead on CR 4850, about 2 miles south of FM 1943

Description: Towering pines and carnivorous plants grow almost side by side on this trail. Learn about these plants and more on this 1-mile hike. Meet at the Pitcher Plant Trailhead on CR 4850, about 2 miles south of FM 1943. Bring water and good walking shoes.

Attendees: Free and open to public

Pitcher Plant-Carl Knight-2010